Statistical elevation-angle distribution
Statistical Elevation-Angle Databases
The following databases show you the distribution of predicted elevation angles from Vaasa (63.15N 21.56E, Finland) to the target areas below. The information has been compiled from thousands of VOACAP point-to-point predictions where the REL value (in this case, the probability of achieving or exceeding the Required Signal-to-Noise (SNR) ratio of 24 dB/Hz, the lowest for CW) is greater than zero.
For each target area, the QTHs below have been selected to create a suitable geographical distribution within that target area.
The calculations have been made using Methods 25 and 30 for all months of the year and for the SSN (Smoothed Sunspot Number) values of 5, 25, 50, 75, 100 and 150, thus covering all solar cycles. For comparison, there are charts for the SSN value of 25 only, representing the sunspot minimum we live in at the moment.
Special software available
A special piece of software was created to process VOACAP output files of Methods 25 and 30. These are text files which, in many cases, can be many millions of text rows long. This software is still in beta (and must be considered as such) but if you want to create elevation-angle databases of your own, you can here download the software for your own private purposes. An obligatory disclaimer: Use at your own risk!
Optimal antenna heights
Based on this elevation-angle data, optimal take-off angles from Vaasa for all amateur bands were determined. These TO angles were then examined using HFTA (HF Terrain Assessment, a utility program by Dean, N6BV, found on the ARRL Antenna Book CD-ROM) and horizontal dipoles that are located on flat ground.
There are two antenna towers, the main tower and one tower that is necessary for short-range distances (see Tables 1 and 2).Table 1. The antenna heights and take-off angles of H-pol dipoles/Yagis at the Main Tower h/AGL = height in meters above ground level Band h/AGL -3 dB Peak -3 dB 80M 95 m 6° 12° 18° 40M 60 m 5° 10° 15° 20M 52 m 3° 6° 9° 15M 42 m 2° 5° 7° 10M 35 m 2° 4° 6° Table 2. The antenna heights and take-off angles of H-pol dipoles/Yagis at the Second Tower Band h/AGL -3 dB Peak -3 dB 80M 47 m 12° 24° 39° 40M 30 m 10° 20° 31° 20M 26 m 6° 11° 18° 15M 21 m 5° 9° 14° 10M 18 m 4° 8° 13°
Elevation-angle databases (Vaasa to the rest of the world)
- Vaasa to Europe
- Vaasa to Africa
- Vaasa to Asia
- Vaasa to Japan
- Vaasa to Oceania
- Vaasa to South America
- Vaasa to USA East
- Vaasa to USA Mid
- Vaasa to USA West
Geographical target areas: QTHs and coordinatesEUROPE MIDDLE EAST Athens 38.00N 23.73E Ashgabat 37.95N 58.38E Belgrade 44.83N 20.50E Baghdad 33.35N 44.38E Berlin 52.50N 13.42E Cairo 30.05N 31.25E Chisinau 47.00N 28.85E Dubai 25.30N 55.30E Glasgow 55.88N 4.25W Istanbul 41.02N 28.97E Kiev 50.47N 30.48E Jeddah 21.48N 39.20E Lisbon 38.72N 9.13W Jerusalem 31.77N 35.23E London 51.50N 0.17W Kabul 34.52N 69.17E Madrid 40.40N 3.68W Kuwait 29.33N 48.00E Milan 45.47N 9.20E Muscat 23.62N 58.58E Moscow 55.77N 37.62E Nicosia 35.18N 33.35E Oslo 59.93N 10.75E Qatar 25.30N 51.50E Palermo 38.13N 13.38E Riyadh 24.63N 46.72E Paris 48.87N 2.33E Sanaa 15.38N 44.20E Perm 58.00N 56.00E Tashkent 41.33N 69.30E Reykjavik 64.15N 21.85W Tehran 35.67N 51.43E Riga 56.88N 24.13E Volgograd 48.75N 44.50E Warsaw 52.25N 21.00E AFRICA ASIA Accra 5.55N 0.22W Bangkok 13.75N 100.52E Antananarivo 18.92S 47.50E Beijing 39.92N 116.38E Banjul 13.47N 16.65W Chennai 13.08N 80.28E Bujumbura 3.37S 29.37E Colombo 6.93N 79.85E Cairo 30.05N 31.25E Hanoi 21.03N 105.85E Cape Town 33.92S 18.37E Ho Chi Minh 10.75N 106.67E Dar Es Salaam 6.85S 39.30E Hong Kong 22.30N 114.16E Djibouti 11.60N 43.15E Irkutsk 52.27N 104.33E Durban 29.92S 30.93E Jakarta 6.17S 106.80E Gaborone 24.75S 25.92E Karachi 24.87N 67.05E Las Palmas 28.13N 15.45W Khabarovsk 48.48N 135.10E Luanda 8.83S 13.25E Kolkata 22.50N 88.50E Lusaka 15.43S 28.33E Kota Kinabalu 5.98N 116.07E Monrovia 6.33N 10.77W Kuala Lumpur 3.15N 101.72E Rabat 34.03N 6.85W Manila 14.58N 120.98E Tripoli 32.88N 13.18E Mumbai 18.97N 72.83E Tunis 36.83N 10.22E New Delhi 28.60N 77.20E Victoria 4.63S 55.45E Seoul 37.57N 127.00E Windhoek 22.57S 17.10E Shanghai 31.23N 121.47E Yaounde 3.85N 11.52E Taipei 25.05N 121.50E Ulaanbaatar 47.92N 106.88E Yangon 16.78N 96.17E JAPAN OCEANIA Fukuoka 33.88N 130.83E Adelaide 34.93S 138.60E Hiroshima 34.40N 132.45E Brisbane 27.50S 153.00E Kagoshima 31.60N 130.55E Honiara 9.47S 159.95E Nagano 36.65N 138.20E Melbourne 37.75S 144.97E Osaka 34.75N 135.50E Noumea 22.27S 166.43E Sapporo 43.05N 141.35E Perth 31.97S 115.82E Sendai 38.25N 140.88E Port Moresby 9.50S 147.12E Tokyo 35.67N 139.77E Suva 18.13S 178.42E Sydney 33.92S 151.17E Tarawa 1.42N 173.00E Wellington 41.28S 174.78E SOUTH AMERICA USA EAST Asuncion 25.25S 57.67W Atlanta 33.78N 84.42W Bogota 4.63N 74.08W Boston 42.37N 71.05W Buenos Aires 34.67S 58.50W Charleston SC 33.78N 84.42W Fortaleza 3.75S 38.58W Charleston WV 42.37N 71.05W Georgetown 6.77N 58.17W Chicago 33.78N 84.42W La Paz 16.50S 68.17W Columbus 42.37N 71.05W Lima 12.10S 77.05W Detroit 33.78N 84.42W Quito 0.23S 78.50W Greensboro 42.37N 71.05W Santiago 33.50S 70.67W Halifax 33.78N 84.42W Sao Paulo 23.60S 46.67W Indianapolis 42.37N 71.05W Jacksonville FL 33.78N 84.42W USA MID Jacksonville NC 42.37N 71.05W Little Rock 33.78N 84.42W Albuquerque 35.07N 106.65W Memphis 42.37N 71.05W Dallas 32.77N 96.86W Miami 33.78N 84.42W Denver 39.73N 104.98W Milwaukee 42.37N 71.05W Des Moines 41.60N 93.65W Nashville 33.78N 84.42W El Paso 31.75N 106.48W New Orleans 42.37N 71.05W Helena 46.60N 112.03W New York 33.78N 84.42W Houston 29.77N 95.40W Ottawa 42.37N 71.05W Kansas City 39.12N 94.62W Pittsburgh 33.78N 84.42W Minneapolis 44.98N 93.27W St. Louis 42.37N 71.05W Phoenix 33.43N 112.06W Toronto 33.78N 84.42W Rapid City 44.08N 103.27W Virginia Beach 42.37N 71.05W Salt Lake City 40.75N 111.90W Washington DC 33.78N 84.42W Tulsa 36.14N 96.02W USA WEST Edmonton 53.54N 113.51W Fresno 36.75N 119.79W Calgary 51.04N 114.08W Las Vegas 36.23N 115.27W Los Angeles 33.93N 118.21W Nampa 43.58N 116.59W Portland 45.52N 122.69W Reno 39.54N 119.84W San Diego 32.72N 117.15W San Francisco 37.78N 122.42W Seattle 47.60N 122.33W Spokane 47.63N 117.46W