Statistical elevation-angle distribution

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Statistical Elevation-Angle Databases

The following databases show you the distribution of predicted elevation angles from Vaasa (63.15N 21.56E, Finland) to the target areas below. The information has been compiled from thousands of VOACAP point-to-point predictions where the REL value (in this case, the probability of achieving or exceeding the Required Signal-to-Noise (SNR) ratio of 24 dB/Hz, the lowest for CW) is greater than zero.

For each target area, the QTHs below have been selected to create a suitable geographical distribution within that target area.

The calculations have been made using Methods 25 and 30 for all months of the year and for the SSN (Smoothed Sunspot Number) values of 5, 25, 50, 75, 100 and 150, thus covering all solar cycles. For comparison, there are charts for the SSN value of 25 only, representing the sunspot minimum we live in at the moment.

Special software available

A special piece of software was created to process VOACAP output files of Methods 25 and 30. These are text files which, in many cases, can be many millions of text rows long. This software is still in beta (and must be considered as such) but if you want to create elevation-angle databases of your own, you can here download the software for your own private purposes. An obligatory disclaimer: Use at your own risk!

Optimal antenna heights

Based on this elevation-angle data, optimal take-off angles from Vaasa for all amateur bands were determined. These TO angles were then examined using HFTA (HF Terrain Assessment, a utility program by Dean, N6BV, found on the ARRL Antenna Book CD-ROM) and horizontal dipoles that are located on flat ground.

There are two antenna towers, the main tower and one tower that is necessary for short-range distances (see Tables 1 and 2).

Table 1. The antenna heights and take-off angles of H-pol dipoles/Yagis at the Main Tower

h/AGL = height in meters above ground level

Band	h/AGL	-3 dB	Peak	-3 dB
80M	95 m	6	12	18
40M	60 m	5	10	15
20M	52 m	3	6	9
15M	42 m	2	5	7
10M	35 m	2	4	6

Table 2. The antenna heights and take-off angles of H-pol dipoles/Yagis at the Second Tower

Band	h/AGL	-3 dB	Peak	-3 dB
80M	47 m	12	24	39
40M	30 m	10	20	31
20M	26 m	6	11	18
15M	21 m	5	9	14
10M	18 m	4	8	13

Elevation-angle databases (Vaasa to the rest of the world)

Geographical target areas: QTHs and coordinates

EUROPE                            MIDDLE EAST
                                  
Athens		38.00N 23.73E     Ashgabat	37.95N 58.38E
Belgrade	44.83N 20.50E     Baghdad	33.35N 44.38E
Berlin		52.50N 13.42E     Cairo		30.05N 31.25E
Chisinau	47.00N 28.85E     Dubai		25.30N 55.30E
Glasgow		55.88N  4.25W     Istanbul	41.02N 28.97E
Kiev		50.47N 30.48E     Jeddah	21.48N 39.20E
Lisbon		38.72N  9.13W     Jerusalem	31.77N 35.23E
London		51.50N  0.17W     Kabul		34.52N 69.17E
Madrid		40.40N  3.68W     Kuwait	29.33N 48.00E
Milan		45.47N  9.20E     Muscat	23.62N 58.58E
Moscow		55.77N 37.62E     Nicosia	35.18N 33.35E
Oslo		59.93N 10.75E     Qatar		25.30N 51.50E
Palermo		38.13N 13.38E     Riyadh	24.63N 46.72E
Paris		48.87N  2.33E     Sanaa		15.38N 44.20E
Perm		58.00N 56.00E     Tashkent	41.33N 69.30E
Reykjavik	64.15N 21.85W     Tehran	35.67N 51.43E
Riga		56.88N 24.13E
Volgograd	48.75N 44.50E
Warsaw		52.25N 21.00E

AFRICA                            ASIA
                                  
Accra		 5.55N  0.22W     Bangkok	13.75N 100.52E
Antananarivo	18.92S 47.50E     Beijing	39.92N 116.38E
Banjul		13.47N 16.65W     Chennai	13.08N  80.28E
Bujumbura	 3.37S 29.37E     Colombo	 6.93N  79.85E
Cairo		30.05N 31.25E     Hanoi		21.03N 105.85E
Cape Town	33.92S 18.37E     Ho Chi Minh	10.75N 106.67E
Dar Es Salaam	 6.85S 39.30E     Hong Kong	22.30N 114.16E
Djibouti	11.60N 43.15E     Irkutsk	52.27N 104.33E
Durban		29.92S 30.93E     Jakarta	 6.17S 106.80E
Gaborone	24.75S 25.92E     Karachi	24.87N  67.05E
Las Palmas	28.13N 15.45W     Khabarovsk	48.48N 135.10E
Luanda		 8.83S 13.25E     Kolkata	22.50N  88.50E
Lusaka		15.43S 28.33E     Kota Kinabalu	 5.98N 116.07E
Monrovia	 6.33N 10.77W     Kuala Lumpur	 3.15N 101.72E
Rabat		34.03N  6.85W     Manila	14.58N 120.98E
Tripoli		32.88N 13.18E     Mumbai	18.97N  72.83E
Tunis		36.83N 10.22E     New Delhi	28.60N  77.20E
Victoria	 4.63S 55.45E     Seoul		37.57N 127.00E
Windhoek	22.57S 17.10E     Shanghai	31.23N 121.47E
Yaounde		 3.85N 11.52E     Taipei	25.05N 121.50E
     				  Ulaanbaatar	47.92N 106.88E
     				  Yangon	16.78N  96.17E

JAPAN                              OCEANIA
                                   
Fukuoka		33.88N 130.83E     Adelaide	34.93S 138.60E
Hiroshima	34.40N 132.45E     Brisbane	27.50S 153.00E
Kagoshima	31.60N 130.55E     Honiara	 9.47S 159.95E
Nagano		36.65N 138.20E     Melbourne	37.75S 144.97E
Osaka		34.75N 135.50E     Noumea	22.27S 166.43E
Sapporo		43.05N 141.35E     Perth	31.97S 115.82E
Sendai		38.25N 140.88E     Port Moresby	 9.50S 147.12E
Tokyo		35.67N 139.77E     Suva		18.13S 178.42E
     				   Sydney	33.92S 151.17E
     				   Tarawa	 1.42N 173.00E
     				   Wellington	41.28S 174.78E

SOUTH AMERICA                     USA EAST
                                  
Asuncion	25.25S 57.67W     Atlanta	33.78N 84.42W
Bogota		 4.63N 74.08W     Boston	42.37N 71.05W
Buenos Aires	34.67S 58.50W     Charleston SC	33.78N 84.42W
Fortaleza	 3.75S 38.58W     Charleston WV	42.37N 71.05W
Georgetown	 6.77N 58.17W     Chicago	33.78N 84.42W
La Paz		16.50S 68.17W     Columbus	42.37N 71.05W
Lima		12.10S 77.05W     Detroit	33.78N 84.42W
Quito		 0.23S 78.50W     Greensboro	42.37N 71.05W
Santiago	33.50S 70.67W     Halifax	33.78N 84.42W
Sao Paulo	23.60S 46.67W     Indianapolis	42.37N 71.05W
			          Jacksonville FL 33.78N 84.42W
USA MID                       	  Jacksonville NC 42.37N 71.05W
                              	  Little Rock	33.78N 84.42W
Albuquerque	35.07N 106.65W	  Memphis	42.37N 71.05W
Dallas		32.77N  96.86W	  Miami		33.78N 84.42W
Denver		39.73N 104.98W	  Milwaukee	42.37N 71.05W
Des Moines	41.60N  93.65W	  Nashville	33.78N 84.42W
El Paso		31.75N 106.48W	  New Orleans	42.37N 71.05W
Helena		46.60N 112.03W	  New York	33.78N 84.42W
Houston		29.77N  95.40W	  Ottawa	42.37N 71.05W
Kansas City	39.12N  94.62W	  Pittsburgh	33.78N 84.42W
Minneapolis	44.98N  93.27W	  St. Louis	42.37N 71.05W
Phoenix		33.43N 112.06W	  Toronto	33.78N 84.42W
Rapid City	44.08N 103.27W	  Virginia Beach 42.37N 71.05W
Salt Lake City	40.75N 111.90W	  Washington DC	33.78N 84.42W
Tulsa		36.14N  96.02W

USA WEST

Edmonton	53.54N 113.51W
Fresno		36.75N 119.79W
Calgary		51.04N 114.08W
Las Vegas	36.23N 115.27W
Los Angeles	33.93N 118.21W
Nampa		43.58N 116.59W
Portland	45.52N 122.69W
Reno		39.54N 119.84W
San Diego	32.72N 117.15W
San Francisco	37.78N 122.42W
Seattle		47.60N 122.33W
Spokane		47.63N 117.46W